Glossary




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21 Espresso
A continental café restaurant in Double Bay Sydney established in 1958.
A
Adath/Adass Yisroel Synagogue
An Ashkenazi Jewish Orthodox congregation.
Agnostic
A person who believes that nothing is known or can be known of the existence or nature of God.
Aliyah
Hebrew: Immigration of Jews from the diaspora to the land of Israel. Aliyah is one of the most basic tenets of Zionism.
Allah
Arabic: The name of God in Islam.
Aloo Makala
Hindi and Arabic: The most famous Jewish Indian dish made of fried potatoes and served on Friday nights, festivals and other special occasions.
Aloo Puri Bhaji
Indian English: A South Asian dish made up of puris (deep fried flat rounds of flour) and aloo bhaji, a spiced or curried potato dish.
Amah/ayah
Chinese/Hindi: A girl or woman employed by a family to look after children and clean the house.
Anatevka
From "Fiddler on the Roof" the famous musical about Tevye the Dairyman from a story by Sholem Aleichem. Tevye lived in Anatekva, a typical 19th century Russian shtetl. See also Shtetl.
Anti-Semitism
Prejudice against, hatred of, or discrimination against Jews as an ethnic, religious, or racial group. A person who holds such positions is called an anti-Semite.
Apartheid
Afrikaans: 'The state of being apart'; a system of racial segregation in South Africa enforced through legislation by the National Party , the governing party from 1948 to 1994.
Ashkenazi
From Hebrew meaning 'German': Jews of France, Germany, and Eastern Europe descent.
Asylum seekers
People who have fled their own country and applied for protection in another country as a refugee.
Atheist
A person who believes that there are no deities.
Australian Jewish News/AJN
Currently the only Jewish newspaper in Australia. It covers local, national and international events. In the past it had other entities - Sydney Jewish News and Australian Jewish Times.
B
Baba
A small yeast cake saturated in hard liquor, usually rum, and sometimes filled with whipped cream.
Baba ganoush/baba ghanoush
Arabic: A dip of roasted, peeled, and mashed eggplant, blended with tahini, garlic, salt, and lemon juice.
Babi Yar
A ravine near Kiev, Ukraine where a series of massacres, mostly of Jews, were carried out by German forces and local collaborators in 1941.
Babka/babke/bubke
Russian/Polish: Cake made of yeast dough and typically baked in a high loaf pan. The Jewish version usually contains cinnamon and/or chocolate.
Backhendl
German: Fried breaded chicken.
Bagel/beigel
Yiddish: A yeasted bread product originating in Poland. It is shaped into a ring form which is first boiled for a short time in water and then baked.
Bamya
Turkish: Okra
Baptism
Greek origin: A Christian sacrament of admission, almost invariably with the use of water, into Christianity in general and a church in particular.
Bar Mitzvah
Hebrew: Initiation ceremony for a Jewish boy who, having turned 13, is regarded as ready to observe religious teachings and eligible to take part in public worship.
Bat Mitzvah
Hebrew: An initiation ceremony for a Jewish girl aged 12 years and one day.
Barnes, Jimmy
See Jimmy Barnes
Bertrand Russell
British philosopher, logician, mathematician, historian, writer, social critic and political activist.
Betar
Hebrew: A revisionist Zionist youth movement founded by Vladimir Jabotinsky in 1923. It aims to empower Jewish youth with a strong militarist slant.
Big Ben pies
An Australian brand of pies, usually meat, and usually eaten with tomato sauce.
Bigotry
Intolerance towards those who hold different opinions from oneself.
Billy cart
Home made, four-wheeled, motorless cart, often made from wooden boxes, that depend on a downhill course for their speed.
Blintzes
Yiddish: Thin pancakes folded or rolled around a filling, such as cheese or fruit. Can then be fried or baked.
Bloom's, London
Iconic kosher restaurant on Whitechapel Road, London. Closed in 2010 after operating for 90 years.
B'nei Brith
Hebrew: Organisation which promotes Jewish unity, defends the State of Israel, advocates on behalf of senior citizens and provides disaster relief.
Board of Jewish Education (BJE)
Aims to provide quality Jewish education to children in state and non-Jewish private school systems across NSW.
Bolshevik/Russian Revolution
Two revolutions in Russia occurred in 1917. The first, in February, overthrew the Czarist system; the second, in October, placed the Bolsheviks in power thus establishing the first communist government. See also Czarist.
Bon Vivant Cake
A cake made with ground hazelnuts, meringue and chocolate. Suitable for Passover as it does not contain flour.
Bonegilla Camp
A small town in inland New South Wales, Australia, which contained a migrant hostel.
Borscht/borsht
Yiddish: An eastern European beetroot soup served with sour cream. Can also refer to a soup made from cabbages. A green borsht is made from sorrel or spinach.
Bracha/brocha
Hebrew: A benediction or blessing recited before the performance of a commandment, eating food and in praise on various occasions.
Brit mila/circumcision
Hebrew: Religious rite where the foreskin of the penis is removed. It is commanded in Genesis as an external sign of a man's covenant with God and performed on the eighth day of a boy's life.
Burger Centre
Named after David Burger, a prominent property developer in Sydney, the centre is a joint venture between the Montefiore Homes and JewishCare. It assists older members of the Jewish community to live at home, provides opportunities for socialisation and encourages people to stay mentally and physically active.
Bush Fire Brigade
Now called NSW Rural Fire Service: A group of volunteer fire fighters who combat bushfires in country NSW.
C
Cabbage rolls/Golopki
Polish: Boiled cabbage leaves wrapped around mince meat, chopped onions and rice or barley then baked. Usually served in a tomato sauce.
Cadets
Australian Army Cadets (AAC): A youth organisation involved in training and adventurous activities in a military setting, usually at private high schools.
Camp Cove
A bay on the southern side of Sydney Harbour, lying within the suburb of Watsons Bay. Popular for its beach and safe swimming.
Candle lighting
Candles are lit on Friday evenings before sunset to welcome Shabbat and on all major Jewish holidays. Traditionally performed by the woman of the household who also recites a blessing.
Cantor
See Chazzan
Carmel Cake Shop
A cake shop at Six Ways, Bondi known for its Jewish cake selection.
Central Synagogue
A modern Orthodox synagogue and spiritual home of the largest Jewish congregation in the southern hemisphere. Located in Bondi Junction, Sydney.
Chabad-Lubavitch
Hebrew: An Orthodox Chasidic movement teaching understanding God. Organisationally it is the largest Jewish religious organisation in the world and known for its outreach.
Chag/Chagim
Hebrew: The three pilgrimage festivals: Sukkot, Pesach, Shavuot.
Chakla bakla
Turkish or Hindi: Broad beans.
Challah
Hebrew/Yiddish: A special plaited bread eaten on the Sabbath and Jewish holidays.
Chapattis
An unleavened flatbread (also known as roti) from Sri Lanka, India, Nepal, Bangladesh and Pakistan.
Charoset
Hebrew: One of the symbolic foods on the Passover Seder plate. Consists of chopped almonds, apples, cinnamon and sacramental wine and signifies the mortar the Jews had to mix during their slavery in Ancient Egypt.
Hasidism/Chasidism
Hebrew meaning 'piety': A branch of Orthodox Judaism initiated by Rabbi Baal Shem Tov in 18th century eastern Europe. It promotes spirituality through Jewish mysticism.
Chatpata
Hindi: Used to describe dishes that have a hot-and-sour flavour.
Chazer/chazerai
Hebrew: Pig or pork. Can also be used as a derogatory term for a slob etc.
Chazzan/Hazan
Sephardic Hebrew: A person who leads synagogue services often in song; a cantor.
Cheder
Hebrew: A traditional elementary school teaching the basics of Judaism and Hebrew.
Chernobyl
Catastrophic nuclear accident on 26 April 1986 at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant in Ukraine.
Chicken Kiev
Chicken breast wrapped around cold herbed garlic butter, breadcrumbed and fried. When cut the butter has melted and becomes a type of sauce.
Chip Chase
A migrant hostel in Greenwich on Sydney's north shore.
Cholent
Yiddish: a traditional Jewish stew/cassoulet. Usually simmered overnight for 12 hours and eaten for lunch on Shabbat. It was developed to conform with Jewish laws that prohibit cooking on the Sabbath.
Chopped liver
A dish made from livers (usually chicken) fried with onions, then chopped roughly together with hard boiled egg.
Christadelphians
From Greek meaning 'Brethren in Christ': A world-wide community of Bible students whose fellowship is based on a common understanding of the nature of Christ, and the way in which Christians are redeemed by his death.
Chuppah
Hebrew: A canopy under which the Jewish marriage ceremony is performed.
Chutzpah
Yiddish: Unmitigated effrontery or impudence.
Civil Rights Movement
Social movement in the USA beginning in the 1960s. Its goals were to end racial segregation and discrimination against black Americans and to ensure their citizenship rights.
Club Neb
Self-deprecating term for a social club in Sydney set up to bring migrant Jewish young people together.
CMF/Citizen Military Forces
Now called the Australian Army Reserve - a collective name given to the reserve units of the Australian Army.
COA/Council of the Ageing
A community-based, not-for-profit group delivering services to the aged and disabled to allow them to stay in their home as long as possible.
Cold cuts
Sliced cooked meats or sausage served cold usually with condiments, pickles and breads.
Cold War
The state of hostility that existed between the Soviet bloc countries and the Western powers, especially America, from 1945 to 1991.
Communism
An economic and social system where, theoretically, all means of production are owned in common rather than by individuals. In practice, a single authoritarian party controls both the political and economic systems and often reigns by terror.
Concentration camp
A place where large numbers of people, especially political prisoners or persecuted minorities, are imprisoned in a relatively small area with inadequate facilities, sometimes to provide forced labour or to await mass execution. Most strongly associated with camps established by the Nazis in Germany and occupied Europe 1933–44.
Congregation
A large gathering of people, often for the purpose of worship and religious services.
Continental food
The cuisines of Europe.
Courage to Care
A travelling (in New South Wales) educational exhibition celebrating those who chose to confront discrimination and injustice by brave acts (particularly in relation to the Holocaust).
Cracker Night
See Empire Day
Cyril's Fine Foods
Delicatessen near Central Railway Sydney in business for over 50 years selling European smallgoods, chocolates and other delicacies.
Czarist/Tsarist
Russian: A type of government principally in Russia before the Bolshevik Revolutions. Czars ruled as absolute monarchs. See also Bolsheviks.
D
Daily Mirror
A Sydney afternoon newspaper established in 1941. It merged with the morning The Daily Telegraph in 1990 becoming The Daily Telegraph-Mirror and then The Daily Telegraph in 1996.
Deli/delicatessen
German: Literally "delicacies" or "fine foods". Delis sell cold cut meats, many varieties of cheeses and breads, salads and food from other countries.
Devon
A type of manufactured meat product sold in Australia and New Zealand. It is usually served in a sandwich, often with tomato sauce and can also be fried in slices.
Doctors' plot
In 1952-53 a group of prominent Moscow doctors (predominantly Jews) was accused of conspiring to assassinate Soviet leaders. This was later accompanied by anti-Semitic publications which talked about the threats of Zionism and condemned people with Jewish names.
DP Camp (Displaced Persons Camp)
A temporary facility for persons displaced from their homes or countries due to war or upheaval. After World War 2 DP camps were established for refugees in Europe and former inmates of concentration camps.
Dreidel/dreydel
Yiddish: A four-sided spinning top with Hebrew letters on each side and played with by children during Hanukkah.
Dunlop
Since 1889 a manufacturer of tyre and rubber products, and later sporting goods.
Dutch resistance
During World War 2 The Netherlands was occupied by Nazi Germany. Many Dutch people resisted by measures such as forging documents, hiding people especially Jews, underground newspapers, armed resistance and espionage.
Dutch Transit Camp (Westerbork)
A holding camp in The Netherlands used mainly for Dutch Jews and Roma who were then transported to Nazi concentration and death camps.
E
ECAJ/Executive Council of Australian Jewry
The officially elected representative organisation and the voice of the Australian Jewish community.
Ein brera
Hebrew: Meaning "no alternative".
Einfeld, Syd
See Syd Einfeld
Eishat chayil
Hebrew: 'Woman of Valour' - a special Shabbat song which honours the Jewish woman who sets the tone of love and spirituality in family life.
Emanuel School
A co-educational Jewish day school which catering to students from pre-school to Year 12 in Randwick, Sydney.
Emanuel Synagogue
Established in 1938, it was originally called Temple Emanuel. It is a progressive synagogue in Woollahra, Sydney and includes a pre-school and day school.
Empire Day
A celebration held on 24 May (Queen Victoria's birthday) to provide a focus for celebrating Australia's ties to Britain. Always associated with Cracker Night where neighbourhoods let off fireworks around a communal bonfire.
Eruv
Hebrew: A ritual enclosure which some Jewish residents construct in their neighbourhoods to permit them to carry certain objects on Sabbath and Yom Kippur.
Exodus
From Greek meaning 'going out'. Also Hebrew: meaning 'names'. Refers to the Israelites, led by their prophet Moses, leaving Egypt for the 'Promised Land'. It is also the name of a ship containing Holocaust survivors attempting to enter Palestine illegally and the title of a famous book by Leon Uris about this event.
F
Falafel
Arabic: A deep-fried ball or patty made from ground chickpeas. A traditional Middle Eastern food, it is commonly served in a pita bread with salads and pickles, and drizzled with tahini.
Fast
Abstaining from food and drink as a religious observance. Yom Kippur is the main fasting day for Jews as a means of repentance for one's sins.
Fenech, Jeff
See Jeff Fenech
Frank Lowy
Australian businessman originally from Hungary (born in Czechoslovakia). Co-founder of the Westfield Group, operator of over 100 shopping centres world-wide.
Frankfurts/frankfurters
German: A cooked sausage often served with sauerkraut or in a bun with condiments which are also called 'hot dogs'.
G
Galler
Probably Yiddish: A savoury jelly made from calves' feet and flavoured with garlic and seasonings.
Ganesh/Ganesha
A Hindu god identified by his elephant head. He is widely revered as the remover of obstacles, the patron of the arts and sciences and the deva of intellect and wisdom.
Garin
Hebrew meaning "core": A term used in Israel for a group of soldiers who choose to experience their army service together as a single social unit which provides mutual support and brotherhood.
Gefilte fish
Yiddish: 'stuffed fish', an Ashkenazi dish made from a poached mixture of ground deboned fish which is typically eaten as an entrée.
Gelato Bar
Bondi Beach café/restaurant established - one of the first continental restaurants in Sydney specialising in Hungarian and Jewish foods plus European style cakes and ice cream. Recently closed.
Gentile
From Latin: A person of a non-Jewish nation or of non-Jewish faith.
Geyer, Renee
See Renee Geyer
Ghetto
From Italian: A usually poor section of a city or town inhabited primarily by people of the same race, religion, or social background, often because of discrimination. During WW2 European Jews were forcibly moved into ghettos where food was scarce and accommodation severely overcrowded.
Glick's
Kosher bakery chain founded in the late 1960s by Mendel Glick in Melbourne. Particularly well-known for its bagels and challahs.
Gorbals
Area on the south bank of the River Clyde in the city of Glasgow, Scotland. Once a dangerous slum but nowa mixture of market and social housing.
Goulard Jew
French: Meaning is unclear but may refer to a group of Jews who were executed by the French Milice in Lyon. A non-Jewish prisoner, Edouard Goulard, was spared.
Goulash
Hungarian: A soup or stew of meat and vegetables seasoned with paprika. Originated in Hungary but also a popular meal in Central Europe, Scandinavia and Southern Europe.
Grace Bros.
An Australian department store chain founded in 1885. It was bought by Myer (later Coles Myer) in 1983 and the stores were re-branded under the Myer name in 2004.
Great Synagogue
Known in Hebrew as Beth Yisrael (House of Israel) "The Great" is one of Sydney's most beautiful and historic heritage buildings. The Synagogue has stood on its present site since 1878, but the congregation's history goes back to the 1820s.
Gribenes
Yiddish: Crispy chicken skin crackling remaining after rendering chicken fat and skin for schmaltz. Onions are often added and fried.
Guinea
In imperial currency, a coin or currency totalling one pound one shilling. It was used in Australia until 1966 when decimal currency was introduced.
Gulag
A Russian acronym for Chief Administration of Corrective Labour Camps. A system of labour camps maintained in the Soviet Union from 1930 to 1955 where millions of people died from starvation and maltreatment.
H
Habonim
Hebrew: A Jewish, Socialist-Zionist youth movement.
Hadassah (1)
Hebrew name of Queen Esther and a popular Hebrew girl's name meaning compassion.
Hadassah (2)
American Jewish volunteer women's organisation which raises funds for community programs and health initiatives in Israel, including the Hadassah Medical Center.
Haggadah
Hebrew: A text describing the order of the Passover Seder. Reading it is a fulfilment of the scriptural commandment to tell the story of the liberation of the Jews from slavery in Egypt.
Hagim
Hebrew: Holidays and seasons for rejoicing.
Hakoah Club
Hebrew meaning 'strength': Began as an all Jewish soccer team in 1939. In 1975 it became a social club in Hall St Bondi Beach providing food, entertainment, function rooms, sports facilities etc. The building was recently sold and will be resituated at White City, Rushcutters Bay
Halacha
See Torah
Hamantaschen
Yiddish meaning 'Haman's pockets' : Triangular-shaped pastries filled with povidol (plum spread ) or poppy seeds, traditionally eaten during Purim. They represent Haman who is the villain in the Purim story
Hamin/chamin
Hebrew: Sephardic Jews prepare this mixed stew (similar to cholent) which was assembled on Friday, cooked slowly in the oven overnight and served as a midday Sabbath meal.
Hanukkah/Chanukah/Hanukah
Hebrew: Also known as the Festival of Lights. Celebrated by lighting a candle every night for eight nights. Also commemorates the rededication of the Second Temple in Jerusalem.
Harbin
Harbin is a key northeast Chinese city to which many Russians (known as White Russians) fled following the Bolshevik Revolutions in Russia.
Harry's
Harry's Café de Wheels: Established in 1938, an iconic caravan in Woolloomooloo, Sydney. Best known for its wide variety of pies.
Hashem
Hebrew: One of the several Hebrew names for God. It simply means 'the Name'.
Hatzolah/Hatzalah/Hatzollah
Hebrew meaning 'rescue' or 'relief: A volunteer Emergency Medical Service (EMS) organisation serving mostly Jewish communities around the world.
Hawker food
"Hawker" was a term used to describe Asian mobile food vendors. Most hawker food stalls now are in open-air complexes in Singapore, Malaysia, Hong Kong and Indonesia and sell a variety of inexpensive food.
Hess, Rudolf
See Rudolph Hess
HIAS
Hebrew Immigrant Aid Society: A US organisation which has worked around the world for 130 years to protect and assist refugees who have been forced to flee their homelands.
High Holidays
In Judaism, the High Holidays or High Holy Days, properly known as the Yamim Noraim (Hebrew: "Days of Awe") are Rosh Hashanah and Yom Kippur.
Hineni
Official youth movement of The Central Synagogue Sydney. It runs programs, events, a gap-year program and camps for participant from Year 2/3 until Year 12.
Holocaust
Greek origin meaning 'whole' and 'burnt': The systematic, bureaucratic, state-sponsored persecution and murder of six million Jews by the Nazi regime and its collaborators during 1930s to 1945. See also Shoah.
Holocaust Child Survivor Group
A Sydney-based group established to provide support and a safe environment for Holocaust survivors who were children born between 1928-1945.
HSC
Higher School Certificate: The highest award in secondary education in New South Wales.
Hummus
Arabic meaning chickpeas: A dip or spread made from cooked, mashed chickpeas blended with tahini, olive oil, lemon juice, salt and garlic.
Hungarian Steak House
Hungarian restaurant in Double Bay, Sydney.
Hungarian Revolution
A spontaneous nationwide revolt against the government of the Hungarian People's Republic and its Soviet-imposed policies. It lasted from 23 October until 10 November 1956 when Soviet tanks entered Budapest.
I
Intermediate Certificate
Awarded in Australia for the successful completion of three years of high school at around age 14. Now abolished.
Intifada
Arabic: Palestinian uprising against Israeli occupation of the West Bank and Gaza Strip. The first intifada lasted from 1987 to 1993, and the second began in 2000.
Iron Curtain
An ideological conflict and a physical boundary dividing post-WW2 Europe into East (under Soviet Union) and West (free world) until 1991.
Israeli pickles
Cucumbers soaked in vinegar, water, salt, garlic and dill and left to mature for several days
J
Jaffle iron
A cooking appliance that consists of two hinged concave, round or square metal, plates on long handles. The plates clamp together to form an enclosed compartment which 'toasts' sandwiches over open flames. The outside edges of the bread are sealed together thus containing the filling.
J- Junction
A Jewish website which organises dating services, events and educational courses.
Jamboree
A large gathering of Scouts who rally at a national or international level.
Jeff Fenech
A retired Australian boxer, world champion of three weights and a boxing trainer.
Jerusalem Kugel
A savoury kugel of caramelised noodles spiced with black pepper. Brought to Jerusalem by Eastern European Hasidic Jews in the eighteenth century. Traditionally eaten after Sabbath morning prayer services.
Jerusalem Steps/Bondi Steps
The main steps leading to the sand on Bondi Beach from the Esplanade which was a gathering place for Jewish and other teenagers.
Jewish day school
A modern Jewish educational institution that is designed to provide children of Jewish parents with both a Jewish and a secular education in one school on a full-time basis.
Jewish guilt
A stereotype regarding the general nature of Jewish life and culture. Often used in comedy in different forms such as the Jewish mother who is adept at creating guilt in her children.
Jewish House
An organisation which provides 24/7 crisis support to those requiring urgent assistance such as the homeless.
JNF/Jewish National Fund/JNF
One of the foremost organisations in Israel. Raises funds to develop the land and conserve scarce resources leading to job creation and improved living standards in Israel.
Jewish Welfare Society
Now called JewishCare NSW. A not-for-profit organisation and major provider for vulnerable and needy Jewish people. Provided great assistance to post-war immigrants .
Jimmy Barnes
A Scottish-born Australian rock singer-songwriter.
Joint
American Jewish Joint Distribution Committee or JDC is the world's leading Jewish humanitarian assistance organisation. It operates in 70 countries to alleviate poverty, revitalise Jewish life, empower Israel's future and develop future Jewish leaders.
JTA
Online Jewish Telegraphic Agency for Jewish and Israeli news.
Judaism
One of the oldest monotheistic religions founded over 3500 years ago in the Middle East. The Torah is its foundational text and prescribes religious and ethical behaviour.
Judea
Greek or Roman adaptation of the name 'Judah': A Roman province that incorporated the geographical regions of Judea, Samaria, and Idumea.
Judean Scouts
Jewish Scouting movement providing adventure activities to build confidence, team work, leadership and survival skills open to all Jewish girls and boys aged 6.5 to 25 years.
J-Wire
A Jewish online journal covering news from Australia, New Zealand and worldwide begun by Henry Benjamin.
K
Kabbalah
Hebrew: The mystical tradition of the Jewish people dating back to Abraham. Kabbalah is the study of God' and is used for referring to the vast array of mystical thought and practice revealed and handed down as part of the Jewish tradition.
Kabbalat Shabbat
Hebrew: Recital of six nature Psalms (Psalms 24, 95-99) for the six days of creation and the special psalm of the Sabbath (Psalm 29).
Kaddish/Kadish
Aramaic: Prayer recited at death, burial and during the period of mourning.
Kahkas
Ring shaped Sephardi biscuit.
Kartoffel
German: Potato. Also used as a derogatory term for a large nose or a German person.
Kashrut
Hebrew: A set of Jewish religious dietary laws such as prohibitions on 'unclean' animals, shellfish, not mixing meat and milk. See also Kosher.
Katzy's Food Factory
Kosher café and delicatessen in Bondi, Sydney.
Kebabs
A Middle Eastern, Eastern Mediterranean, and South Asian dish of pieces of meat, fish, or vegetables roasted or grilled on a skewer or spit.
Kemeny's
An independent wine, liquor and food store in Bondi Road, Bondi established since 1960.
Key money
An illegal payment expected from a tenant to a landlord in order for a lease to be granted, renewed or modified.
Kibbutz
Hebrew meaning 'gathering/clustering': A collective community in Israel which traditionally was based on agriculture. Today kibbutzim (plural) are partly supplanted by activities such as industrial plants and high-tech enterprises.
Kiddush
Hebrew meaning 'sanctification': A blessing recited over wine or grape juice to sanctify the Sabbath and Jewish holidays.
Kippah/Yarmulke
Hebrew/Yiddish: A small cap that covers a Jewish man's head during prayer, eating or studying as a sign of respect toward God, who is above you. Religious Jews will wear it all the time.
Kishke in leber
Yiddish literally meaning 'insides' or intestines: Cow's intestine stuffed with mincemeat, rice, vegetables and flour. 'Leber' is Yiddish for liver.
Kol Nidrei
Aramaic : Declaration recited in synagogue on the evening service of Yom Kippur (the Day of Atonement).
Kooba
Iraqi: Dumplings filled with spicy ground meat.
Korma
Turkish: A mildly spiced curry dish of meat or fish marinaded in yogurt or curds.
Körözött
See Liptauer
Kosher
Hebrew: Foods that conform to the regulations of kashrut. See also Kashrut.
Kosher l'Pesach
During Passover Jews are prohibited from eating leavened foods (called chametz) which includes a variety of grains, legumes and other products. Kosher l'Pesach indicates foods that have been designated as suitable for eating at Passover.
Kotel
Hebrew: The Second Temple in Jerusalem was destroyed by the Romans in 70 CE. The outer wall was the only remnant remaining and became the holiest site for Jews.
Kotletta/kukletti
Finnish: A small minced meat patty that is covered with breadcrumbs and shallow fried.
Kremlin
Russian: A 'fortress within a city' in the heart of Moscow surrounded by walls and towers. It is the official residence of the President of the Russian Federation.
Kreplach
Yiddish: Small dumplings filled with ground meat, mashed potatoes or another filling, usually boiled and served in chicken soup.
Kristallnacht
German: "Night of Broken Glass", a pogrom against Jews throughout Nazi Germany and Austria on 9–10 November 1938. It was carried out by paramilitary forces and non-Jewish civilians.
Kugel
Yiddish: A baked pudding made from egg noodles (lokshen) or potato. It used to be mainly savoury but now more commonly sweetened with raisins, sugar, cinnamon etc.
Kugelhopf/kugelhupf
German: A Bundt butter or yeast cake.
Kulaks
Russian: Relatively affluent farmers in the later Russian Empire, Soviet Russia, and early Soviet Union.
Kvelling
Yiddish: To be extraordinarily pleased, to be bursting with pride especially over one's family.
L
Lag Ba’Omer
Hebrew: A festive day for the anniversary of the passing of the great sage Rabbi Shimon bar Yochai, author of the Zohar, the basic book of Kabbalah. It also commemorates the week between Passover and Shavuot when a plague which raged amongst the disciples of the great sage Rabbi Akiva suddenly ceased.
Lamingtons
Squares of sponge cake coated first in chocolate sauce, then in desiccated coconut. Australian origin.
Langos
From Turkish: A Hungarian food speciality - deep fried flat bread made of a flour dough, yeast, salt and water. Potatoes or sour cream may be added to the dough. Eaten fresh and warm, topped with sour cream, grated cheese, liptauer or jam.
Lasagne
Italian: Wide sheets of pasta. Also the name of a dish with layers of pasta, bechamel sauce and ragù and topped with parmesan cheese.
Lashon Hara
Hebrew meaning 'evil tongue': Halachic term for derogatory talk about another person.
Latch key kid
A child who returns from school to an empty home because parents are at work. They often carried the house key around their necks on a chain or string.
Latkes
Yiddish: Shallow fried patties made with grated potato and served with apple sauce or sour cream.
L'chaim/Le chaim
Hebrew meaning 'to life': A toast used in drinking to a person's health or well-being or congratulating a team or person.
Leaving Certificate
Awarded in Australia for the successful completion of five years of high school at around age 17. Abolished in 1960s.
Lee, Norman
See Norman Lee
Lehabim
From Hebrew meaning 'fiery or flaming': A biblical reference occurring only in Genesis 10:13; the name of a Mizraite tribe from which the Libyan people arose .
Liberated/liberation
Freed from confinement or oppression; commonly used for Jews who were freed from concentration camps or ghettos during World War 2.
Limmud Oz
A major Australian Jewish community-wide conference and festival celebrating Jewish learning and creativity.
Liptauer
German: A soft cheese such as cottage or cream cheese with sour cream, butter or margarine, finely chopped onions and spices such as paprika, fresh parsley, and caraway seeds. Served as a spread or dip. See also korozott.
Lokshen
Yiddish: Noodles
Lowy, Frank
See Frank Lowy
Lulav
A closed frond of the date palm tree shaken during Sukkot to represent rejoicing in God.
M
Ma Nish Tana
Hebrew meaning 'What has changed?': Commonly - why is this night different from all other nights? The four questions asked or sung during the Passover Seder and traditionally asked by the youngest child.
Maccabean Hall
A building in Darlinghurst Sydney originally built as a memorial to NSW Jewish servicemen who had served in World War 1. It was also the home of the Jewish Welfare Society and provided Sydney’s Jews with a meeting place to assist new arrivals assimilate into the local community. Well-known as a venue for wedding receptions etc. and a place for young Jews to gather. It is now the home of the Sydney Jewish Museum.
Maccabi
Maccabi Australia together with member States and affiliated clubs exists to promote Jewish identity and continuity through sport.
Mahasha
Hindi: Stuffed vegetables. Stuffing can be made from meat, rice, pine nuts and herbs.
Mah-jong
Mandarin: A game of skill, strategy, calculation and chance using 144 tiles with pictograms and Chinese characters.
Malukhiyah/Molokhia
Arabic: Cooked jute leaves used as a vegetable and popular in Middle Eastern and North African countries. Is rather bitter, and when boiled becomes a thick, mucilaginous broth.
Mangiare
Italian: To eat
Marc Chagall
1887-1985. A Jewish Russian-French modernist artist who worked in a variety of media - painting, book illustrations, stained glass, stage sets, ceramic, tapestries and fine art prints. He was particularly known for his joyful and colourful re-creations of shtetl life.
Marks & Spencer
A British bargain department store begun in 1884 by a Polish-Russian refugee and still in business with multiple sites.
Matzo balls/Kneidlach
Yiddish: Ashkenazi soup dumplings made from a mixture of matzah meal, eggs, water, and oil or chicken fat. Traditionally served in chicken soup.
Matzo/Matzoh/Matzah
Hebrew/Yiddish: An unleavened bread eaten by Jews during Passover. Symbolises the speed with which the Jews left their slavery in Egypt - there was no time to add leavening to their bread which then got baked by the hot desert sun into flat crispbread.
Mauthausen
Mauthausen-Gusen: 'Grade III' concentration camps for the 'incorrigible political enemies of the Reich'. Mostly used for extermination through slave labour.
Mazel
Hebrew/Yiddish: Luck.
Mazeltov
Hebrew/Yiddish: Literally 'good luck'. A Jewish phrase used to express congratulations for a happy and significant occasion or event.
Mechitza 
Hebrew: In Orthodox communities, a partition, particularly one that is used to separate men and women in synagogues or at functions.
Megele/helzel/heltzl
Yiddish: Skin of a chicken neck sewn together to form a tube which is then stuffed with a mixture of flour, schmaltz and onion and the ends sewn up. It is then boiled or roasted and sliced.
Megillah/megilla
Hebrew: The scroll containing the biblical narrative of the book of Esther, traditionally read in synagogues to celebrate the festival of Purim. In slang, a tediously detailed account - "der gantze megilla" (the whole story) is a common phrase used to over-exaggerate a detailed story.
Menorah
Hebrew: A candelabrum symbolising light, wisdom, and divine inspiration. It can have 7 branches (as used in the Biblical tabernacle) or any number of branches (as used in modern synagogues). For Hanukkah the menorah has 9 branches.
Mentsh/mensch
Yiddish/German: Literally meaning a human being but more generally used for a person of integrity and honour.
Menzies, Robert
See Robert Menzies
Messina
Chain of gelato parlours in Australia serving over 40 flavours in cones or cups.
Mezuzah/Mezzuzah
Hebrew: A piece of parchment, often contained in a decorative case, inscribed with specified Hebrew verses from the Torah and affixed to the doorposts of Jewish homes.
Migrant Hostel
Also known as migrant reception or migrant workers’ hostels. Established in Australia after World War II to accommodate displaced persons and assisted migrants.
Minyan
Hebrew: Quorum of ten Jewish adults (usually males) required for religious obligations and services.
Mitzvah/Mitzvot
Hebrew: Any of the 613 commandments in the Torah; the fulfilment of these commandments.
Monday Morning Cooking Club
A group of Sydney Jewish women who gather and test Jewish recipes. These have been published in two cookbooks. All profits go to charity.
Montefiore Home
Leading aged care provider committed to providing exceptional levels of care and enhance the quality of life within a secure, tranquil and Jewish environment.
Moriah College
Hebrew: Modern Orthodox Jewish day school in Sydney.
Multiculturalism
The existence, acceptance, or promotion of multiple cultural traditions within a single jurisdiction.
N
Naches
Yiddish: Pleasure, satisfaction, delight; proud enjoyment especially of one's children or grandchildren.
Napoleon cake
Also known as mille-feuille, French for 'thousand leaves': Made up of three layers of puff pastry alternating with two layers of crème pâtissière. The top pastry layer is dusted with icing sugar or glazed with white icing and chocolate stripes.
Naturalisation
The legal act or process by which a non-citizen living in a country may acquire citizenship or nationality of that country.
Nazism
The political beliefs held by the National Socialist German Workers' Party which ruled Germany during the Third Reich, 1933-1945. The main tenets were authoritarianism and ethnic nationalism with Jews as the main target.
NCJWA
National Council of Jewish Women of Australia: A grassroots organisation inspired by Jewish values. Aims to improve the quality of life for women, children, and families.
Nebbish
From Hebrew: A person, especially a man, who is regarded asineffectual, timid, or submissive.
Nockerl
German: Also known as spätzle - a soft egg noodle or dumpling originating in southern Germany and Austria, Switzerland, Hungary, Alsace. Often served with paprikash.
Norman Lee
1933 - 2000: Prominent Jewish alderman and Deputy Mayor of Waverley Municipal Council, serving for 16 years.
O
Oneg Shabbat
Hebrew: Gathering of Jews in a synagogue or private home to express outwardly the happiness inherent in the Sabbath holiday.
ORT
Founded in Tsarist Russia in 1880 and coined from the acronym of Russian words Obshestvo Remeslennogo zemledelcheskogo Truda, meaning The Society for Trades and Agricultural Labour. It is the world's largest Jewish education and vocational training non-governmental organisation.
Orthodox Judaism
The branch of Judaism which adheres to the interpretation and application of the laws and ethics of the Torah as legislated in the Talmudic texts.
Our Big Kitchen
A community run kitchen located in Bondi, Sydney which prepare meals that are distributed to needy people from all walks of life.
Oy!/Oy vey!
Yiddish: An exclamation of chagrin, dismay, exasperation or pain.
OzHarvest
First perishable food rescue organisation in Australia. It collects quality excess food from commercial outlets and delivers it, direct and free of charge, to close to 500 charities. It was launched in 2004 by Ronni Kahn.
P
Paddy's Markets
A central market in Haymarket, Sydney for 150 years. Used to be the central fresh produce supplier but now house stalls selling fashion, gifts andd gadgets.
Pale of Settlement
From Latin palus meaning a stake signifying a fence or boundary: A region of Imperial Russia in which permanent residency by Jews was allowed and beyond which Jewish permanent residency was generally prohibited.
Palestine
After WW I, the name 'Palestine' was applied to the territory British Mandate. This area included present-day Israel and Jordan.
Palmerston Avenue
A street in Bronte, Sydney which was home to many Jews who came to Australia from Shanghai after WW2.
Paprikash
Hungarian: A dish resembling goulash usually made with chicken or veal but without potatoes.
Parsha/Parashah
Hebrew/Yiddish: Any section of the Torah read in synagogue or any subsection of the weekly lessons read in synagogue on the Sabbath.
Pastrami
Turkish: A meat product usually made from beef, and sometimes pork or turkey. The raw meat is brined, partially dried, seasoned, then smoked and steamed.
Pavlova
A dessert named after the Russian ballerina Anna Pavlova; a meringue cake with a crisp crust and soft inside, usually topped with fruit and whipped cream.
Pelmeni
Russians: Dumplings consisting of a filling, usually meat, fish or mushrooms, wrapped in thin, unleavened dough.
Persecution
A program or campaign to exterminate, drive away, or subjugate people based on their membership of a religious, ethnic, social, or racial group.
Pesach/Passover
Hebrew: An eight-day festival which commemorates the emancipation of the Israelites from slavery in ancient Egypt. Uses many symbolic foods.
Physie/Physical Culture
Exercise through music; developed by an Australian, Bjelke-Petersen, in 1892. Its program kept Australians fit and healthy before the current gym culture.
Pidyon Ha'Ben
Hebrew: Literally 'redemption of the first-born son', a mitzvah in Judaism whereby a firstborn son is 'redeemed', using silver coins, by his parents from his birth-state.
Pierogi
Polish: Unleavened dumplings filled with ground meat, potato, cheese or fruit. Often semi-circular in shape.
Pilaf
Turkish: A dish in which rice is cooked in a seasoned broth. Depending on the local cuisine, it may also contain meat, fish, vegetables, and dried fruits.
Pita/Pitta
Greek: A soft, slightly leavened flatbread baked from wheat flour. It forms a pocket which can then be filled. Used in many Mediterranean, Balkan and Middle Eastern cuisines.
Plum dumplings
A central/eastern European dish made from mashed potato dough filled with plums, boiled then rolled in breadcrumbs. Can be eaten as dessert, as a main dish or side dish.
Pogrom
From Russian: A massacre or persecution instigated by the government or ruling class against a minority group, particularly Jews, especially in 19th century Russia.
Ponchke/Sufnagiyot
Yiddish/Hebrew: A round yeast doughnut with jam filling, fried, rolled in sugar and eaten at Hanukkah.
Poppy seed cake
Poppy seed is an oilseed obtained from the opium poppy. In Jewish cuisine pastries are filled with black poppy seeds in a sugary paste. Can also be used in yeast kugelhopf, hamantashen or a pastry roll called beigli (also spelled bejgli).
Porush, Israel
See Rabbi Israel Porush
Probus Club
Assists retired/semi-retired executives and professionals to meet others with similar vocations. Provides opportunities to keep abreast of important social changes and world affairs.
Project Heritage
A NSW primary school initiative where Holocaust survivors become "Living Historians" telling the stories. Students then research the story and make a presentation.
Purim
Hebrew: A Jewish festival commemorating Queen Esther's saving of the Jewish people from Haman, who was planning to kill all the Jews in ancient Persia. See also Queen Esther.
Q
Queen Esther
Saved the Jews of Persia by pleading with her husband the king to repeal the decree that all Jews should be killed. Celebrates the biblical Purim story. See also Purim.
R
Rabbi
Hebrew: A teacher of the Torah and leader of a congregation providing religious services for Jewish observance and communal matters such as births, deaths and marriages.
Rabbi Israel Porush
The ‘uncrowned chief rabbi of Australia’ : Chief Rabbi of the Great Synagogue 1940 - 1973, a period of a large increase in Jewish population due to refugee Jews and Holocaust survivors.
Ragu
Italian: A meat-based sauce commonly served with pasta.
Rakott Krumpli
Hungarian: One of Hungary’s favourite comfort foods. Made with potatoes, sour cream, paprika and sometimes smoked Hungarian sausage.
Ramadan
Arabic: The ninth month in the Islamic calendar, a period of prayer, fasting, charity-giving and self-accountability for Muslim.
Rantash
Hungarian: A method of thickening food with a roux or flour and water to make it go further.
Raoul Wallenberg
1912 - 1945 (?): A Swedish architect, businessman, diplomat and humanitarian widely celebrated for saving tens of thousands of Jews in Nazi-occupied Hungary during the Holocaust. He disappeared in 1945 rumoured to have died in Soviet gulags.
Rebbetzin
Hebrew: A rabb's wife who plays an important role, especially in small communities. She can be as knowledgeable as the rabbi in the realm of woman's observances.
Reddam House School
A co-educational, non-denominational school for toddlers through to Year 12.
Redleaf Pool
Now called Murray Rose Pool - a harbourside tidal enclosure with a beach, pontoons and kiosk in the suburb of Woollahra, Sydney.
Reds under the beds
A phrase used to create fear about an insidious communist presence that has infiltrated a capitalist society. Mostly used in Australia by Robert Menzies, prime minister during the late 1940s and 1950s.
Refugees
People who have left their home country because they have suffered or feared persecution on account of race, religion, nationality, or political opinion or because they are fleeing a war.
Refuseniks
Russian: An unofficial term for individuals, typically but not exclusively Soviet Jews, who were denied permission to emigrate by the former Soviet Union and other Eastern bloc countries.
Renee Geyer
Australian singer regarded as one of the finest exponents of jazz, soul and rhythm and blues.
Robert Menzies
1894 - 1978. Australia's longest serving Prime Minister leading the conservative Liberal Party. He was Prime Minister twice - from 1939 to 1941 and from 1949 through to 1966.
Rosh Hashanah
Hebrew: Literally means 'head of the year' . Commonly known as the Jewish New Year.
Rudolf Hess
1894 - 1987. Appointed Deputy Führer to Adolf Hitler in 1933. In 1941, he flew to Scotland in an attempt to negotiate peace with Britain. He was taken prisoner and convicted of crimes against peace, serving a life sentence.
Russell, Bertrand
See Bertrand Russell
S
Sabbaba
A café group serving Middle Eastern street food such as pitas, hummus and baba ganoush and salads.
Sacher torte
German: A chocolate cake invented by Austrian Franz Sacher in 1832 for Prince Wenzel von Metternich in Vienna. It is a dense chocolate cake with a thin layer of apricot jam on top, coated in dark chocolate icing on the top and sides. Traditionally served with unsweetened whipped cream.[
Safta
Hebrew: Grandmother.
Salat d'Olivier/Russian salad
French: A traditional Russian salad but widely popular. Usually made with diced boiled potatoes, carrots, dill pickles, eggs, onions, diced boiled chicken, and dressed with mayonnaise.
Samovar
Russian literally 'self-boiler': A heated metal container traditionally used to heat and boil water in Russia and other Central, South-Eastern and Eastern European countries.
Sauerkraut
German: Literally 'sour cabbage'. Finely cut cabbage that has been fermented by various lactic acid bacteria.
Savion
A café in North Bondi serving Middle Eastern and Mediterranean food. It also manufactures a variety of dips and spreads which are sold in delis and supermarkets.
Schlep/schlepping
Yiddish: Carrying or dragging something with difficulty or travelling a long way.
Schmaltz/Schmalz/schmalc
Yiddish: Chicken (or other meats) fat and skin rendered (melted) and strained and used as an oil.
Schmooze/shmoozing
Americanism from Yiddish: To talk with someone in a friendly way in order to gain information or an advantage.
Schnitzel/Wiener schnitzel
German: A boneless meat, usually veal or chicken, thinned with a meat tenderiser, coated with flour, beaten eggs and bread crumbs, and then fried.
Seder
Hebrew: A ritual which involves the retelling of the story of the liberation of the Israelites from slavery in ancient Egypt . It includes a meal and symbolic foods. See also Pesach.
Semolina
Italian: Coarsely ground middle part of durum wheat used in pasta, breakfast cereals, puddings, and couscous.
Sephardi
Hebrew: Originally referred to the Jews of Spain and Portugal but now includes their descendants who settled in countries along the Mediterranean Sea, North Africa, the Middle East and Europe as well as indigenous Jews who already lived in these places.
Shabbat/Shabbos/Sabbath
Hebrew/Yiddish meaning 'cease, rest': the seventh day of the Jewish week on which Jews are required to rest and abstain from work as commanded by God. It begins with special blessings at sunset Friday and ends at sunset Saturday.
Shakshuka
Arabic: A dish of eggs poached in a sauce of tomatoes, peppers, and onions, often spiced with cumin. It is believed to have a Tunisian or Algerian origin.
Shalom aleichem
Hebrew/Yiddish: A greeting meaning "peace be upon you". The usual response is "aleikhem shalom" - "upon you be peace". It is also a traditional song sung by religious Jews every Friday night upon returning home from synagogue. Sholom Aleichem is the pen name of Solomon Rabinovich, a major Yiddish author and playwright.
Shanghai Jews
Many Jews escaping Nazism in Germany and Austria in the late 1930s were able to settle in Shanghai, China which did not have visa requirements. Most lived in the ghetto in Hongkew and many came to Australia after the war.
Shavuot
Hebrew meaning 'weeks': Refers to the Jewish festival marking the giving of the Torah at Mount Sinai which occurs seven weeks after Passover.
Shema Yisrael
Hebrew: "Hear O Israel": The first two words of a section of the Torah; the title of a prayer that serves as a centrepiece of the morning and evening Jewish prayer services.
Shiur/Shiurim (plural)
Hebrew: A lesson on any topic in the Torah.
Sisters of Mary
Evangelical Sisterhood of Mary in Australia: A group of nuns from different nations whose activities promote "love for Jesus, living in reconciliation, repentance, how to become strong for testing times".
Shoah
Hebrew meaning 'catastrophe': Denotes the catastrophic destruction of European Jewry during World War II. See also Holocaust.
Shochet/Shechita
Hebrew: Shechita is the ritual slaughtering of mammals and birds for food where the trachea and arteries etc. are swiftly severed with an extremely sharp knife to ensure the animals suffers as little pain as possible. The shochet is a specially trained religious Jew.
Shofar
Hebrew: An instrument made from the horn of a ram or other kosher animal. It was used in ancient Israel to announce the new moon and call people together. It is also blown on Rosh Hashanah marking the beginning of the New Year.
Shtetl
Yiddish: A small town with a large Jewish population existing in Central and Eastern Europe before the Holocaust.
Shtiebel
Yiddish meaning 'little house' or 'little room': A place used for communal Jewish prayer. A shtiebel is far smaller and services can be more casual than in a traditional synagogue.
Shul
Yiddish: Literally 'school' but now used for 'synagogue'; see also synagogue.
Siberia
An extensive geographical region in the old Soviet Union or North Asia. It was the centre of the Soviet gulag system of brutal slave labour penal camps.
Siddur
Hebrew: A Jewish prayer book, containing a set order of daily prayers.
Simcha
Hebrew/Yiddish: Literally means gladness or joy. Also used for celebrations and festive occasions such as weddings. Can also be a first name.
Simcha Torah/Simkhes Toreh/Simchhas Torah
Hebrew/Yiddish: meaning 'rejoicing of the Torah': A festival that celebrates and marks the conclusion of the annual cycle of public Torah readings and the beginning of a new cycle.
Six Day War
A war fought from June 5 to 10, 1967 between Israel and the neighbouring states of Egypt, Jordan, and Syria. A major military success for Israel resulting in Israeli control of the Gaza Strip, the Sinai Peninsula, the West Bank, East Jerusalem and the Golan Heights.
Six Ways
An intersection close to Bondi Beach originally comprising six streets.
Sjoelen/Shulbach
Dutch: A board used for a game known as Dutch Shuffleboard or Sjoelen where each player slides disks along a two metre table in an attempt to get them through 4 arches at the other end.
Smoked salmon
Salmon fillet that has been cured and hot or cold smoked. Considered a delicacy.
Suppen-Kaspar
German: A story from Struwwelpeter about Augustus, a healthy, strong boy who proclaims that he will no longer eat his soup. Over the next five days he wastes away and dies.
Soviet Union
Formally Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR): A Marxist–Leninist state existing between 1922 and 1991. It was governed as a single-party state by the Communist Party with Moscow as its capital. Its government and economy were highly centralised, ruling over a union of multiple Soviet republics.
Soweto Uprising
A series of protests which began on 16 June 1976 led by high school students in Soweto and spread across South Africa. Students were protesting against the introduction of Afrikaans as the medium of instruction but it spread to include all aspects of Apartheid. 16 June is now an annual public holiday called Youth Day.
Springboks
The South Africa National Rugby Union Team named after the brown and white antelope-gazelle of southwestern Africa.
Stalinism
The policies and rule of Josef Stalin, Soviet Communist Party and state leader from 1929 until his death in 1953. Associated with a regime of terror and totalitarian rule.
Stark's Delicatessen
A kosher delicatessen at Six Ways, Bondi stocking many European and Jewish lines and especially foods for Passover.
Strudel
German: A type of layered pastry with a sweet filling such as apple, cream cheese etc.. The pastry is very thin and crisp with multiple layers.
Suez Canal
Artificial sea-level waterway in Egypt (opened in 1869) which allows ships to travel between Europe and South Asia without navigating around Africa thereby reducing distance by 7,000 kilometres.
Suez Crisis/Middle East Crisis
In late 1956 Israel, Britain and France invaded Egypt to regain Western control of the Suez Canal and to remove Egyptian President from power. The UN forced the invaders to withdraw.
Sukkot/Sukkos
Hebrew/Yiddish literally meaning 'huts': Refers to the festival of giving thanks for the harvest and requires Jews to erect huts to be used for eating and entertaining for 7 days.
Sumeria/Sumer
One of the ancient civilisations and historical regions in southern Mesopotamia (modern-day southern Iraq).
Survivor guilt
A condition where people perceive themselves to have erred for having survived a traumatic event when others did not. Often used in relation to the Holocaust especially when family members perished.
Sussman's Kosher Butcher Shop
A kosher butcher shop in Bondi Junction Sydney.
Svíčková
Czech: Braised beef cooked with vegetables, spiced with black pepper, allspice, bay leaf and thyme, and boiled with double cream. Served with bread dumplings.
Syd Einfeld
1909 - 1995. Australian politician and Jewish community leader. Einfeld is credited with changing Australia’s immigration policy to provide a refuge for Holocaust survivors leading to Australia accepting more refugees per capita than any other country in the world and more Jewish refugees than anywhere except Israel.
Sydney Clinic
A private psychiatric hospital located in the eastern suburbs of Sydney.
Sydney Jewish Museum
A museum in Sydney, established by Holocaust survivors, which documents, displays and teaches about the Holocaust, social justice and human rights as well as the history of the Jewish people in Australia.
Sydney Morning Herald
Founded in 1831 as the Sydney Herald, the SMH is the oldest continuously published newspaper in Australia.
Synagogue
Greek origin meaning 'assembly': A Jewish house of worship, often having facilities for religious instruction; see also Shul.
Szechuan food
Food of south western China. It has strong flavours, particularly from liberal use of garlic and chili peppers as well as the unique flavour of Szechuan pepper.
T
Tallit
Aramaic meaning 'cover': Literally means cloak or sheet but now describes a prayer shawl worn by males in synagogue.
Talmud
Hebrew: The collection of writings constituting the Jewish civil and religious law. It consists of two parts, the Mishna (text) and the Gemara (commentary).
Tashlich
Hebrew: Literally 'to cast'. Refers to casting away sins via an ancient Jewish custom common to both Ashkenazi and Sephardic communities. Special verses are recited near a body of water.
Tefillin
Hebrew: Also called phylacteries. Two small leather boxes which contain verses from the Torah. They are worn by men over bar mitzvah age on the head and on one arm and are held in place by leather straps.
Ten Pound Poms
Used describe British subjects who paid ten pounds to migrate to Australia after WW2 under the Assisted Passage Migration Scheme which was established in 1945 to provide workers and increase the population.
Threepence/thruppence
A small silver coin used in the Commonwealth of Australia minted from 1910 to 1964. It was withdrawn from circulation after decimalisation in 1966.
Torah
Hebrew: The central reference for the religious Judaic tradition which involves following a set of moral and religious obligations and civil laws known as Halacha.
Torte
German: A multilayered, cake that is filled with whipped cream, buttercreams, mousse, jam, or fruit.
Treyf/treif/treyfe
Yiddish: Food which is not kosher.
Tzedakah
Hebrew: Giving aid and money to the poor, needy or other worthy causes. In Judaism, this is not viewed as a magnanimous but is simply an act of justice and righteousness.
Tzedek/Tzemak synagogues
A Chabad-Lubavitch synagogue.
Tzitzit
Hebrew: The name for specially knotted ritual fringes, or tassels, worn in antiquity by Israelites and today by observant Jews,
U
UIA/United Israel Appeal
The Australian arm of Keren Hayesod in Israel; works to further the national priorities of the State of Israel and Israeli society.
Upsherin
Yiddish/Judaeo-Arabic: A haircutting ceremony particularly popular in Chabad Jewish communities, typically held when a boy turns three years old.
V
Vegemite
A dark brown Australian spread made from leftover brewers' yeast extract with various vegetable and spice additives developed by Cyril P. Callister in Melbourne, Victoria, in 1922.
Velveeta
The brand name of a processed bland cheese product made by Kraft. Popular in 1950s and 60s Australia.
Vilno/Vilna/Wilna/Vilnius
Capital of Lithuania. It was a major centre of Jewish life and learning causing it to be named by Napoleon as the "Jerusalem of the North".
W
Wallenberg, Raoul
See Raoul Wallenberg
War Crimes Unit
An organisation established by the Hawke Government in 1987 to investigate alleged WW2 criminals. After failing to secure any prosecutions it was closed in 1972.
WAYS
Waverley Action for Youth Services: Begun in 1977, a not-for-profit, community organisation providing a range of education and support services to young people and their families across the eastern, inner and southern suburbs of Sydney.
WIZO
Women’s International Zionist Organisation: A non-party international movement dedicated to the advancement of the status of women and welfare of all sectors of Israeli society. Also encourages Jewish education in Israel and the Diaspora.
Wog
Australian and British English: A slang word usually employed as an ethnic or racial slur and considered derogatory and offensive.
Wolper Jewish Hospital
A specialist medical and rehabilitation hospital in Sydney's eastern suburbs.
Woolies
Nickname for Woolworths, a supermarket/grocery store chain in Australia. Woolworths and Coles, another chain, form a near duopoly of Australian supermarkets.
Wurst
German: Sausage. Pronounced "voorsht".
X
Y
Yad Lachim
Hebrew: A not-for-profit non-political organisation established in 1950 to help new immigrants in Israel.
Yahrzeit candle/yortsayt likht
Hebrew/Yiddish: A memorial candle meaning 'soul candle' or anniversary candle. It is lit in memory of the dead and burns for about 24 hours.
Yarmulke
See Kippah.
Yemeni
Adjective of Yemen, one of the oldest centres of civilisation in the Near East.
Yeshiva
Hebrew: A Jewish institution which focuses on the study of traditional religious texts, primarily the Talmud and Torah.
Yiddish
Historical language of Ashkenazi Jews. Originated in Central Europe and uses Germanic based vernacular plus elements of Hebrew, Aramaic and Romance languages.
Yiddishe naches
Yiddish: Joy or blessings, pride especially from ones children, grandchildren.
Yiddishkeit
Yiddish: Jewishness or 'Jewish way of life'. It has come to mean the Jewish essence of Ashkenazi Jews in general and the traditional Yiddish-speaking Jews of Eastern and Central Europe in particular.
Yom Kippur War
Also known as the 1973 Arab–Israeli War fought by the coalition of Arab states led by Egypt and Syria against Israel from October 6 to 25, 1973.
Yom tov/Yontov
Hebrew/Yiddish literally meaning 'good day'. Used for the festivals of biblical origin - Rosh Hashanah, Yom Kippur, Sukkot, Simchas Torah, the first and last day(s) of Passover, and Shavuot.
Z
Zionism
Hebrew: A nationalist and political movement supporting the re-establishment of a Jewish homeland in the territory defined as the historic Land of Israel. The World Zionist Organization was founded in 1897 by Theodor Herzl, an Austro-Hungarian writer and political activist, and promoted Jewish migration to Palestine in order to form a Jewish state.
Zionist Councils
Lead and encourage Jewish and Zionist activity and expression amongst Jewish communities in each state of Australia and promoting Israel’s interests.